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Deploying ASP.NET MVC to IIS 6

Deploying ASP.NET MVC applications to IIS 6 always causes confusion at first. You’ve been coding in Visual Studio 2008, seeing your lovely clean URLs work nicely in the built-in web server, you stick the code on some Windows Server 2003 machine, and then wham! It’s all like 404 Not found  and you’re like hey dude that’s not cool.

image

This happens because IIS 6 only invokes ASP.NET when it sees a “filename extension” in the URL that’s mapped to aspnet_isapi.dll (which is a C/C++ ISAPI filter responsible for invoking ASP.NET). Since routing is a .NET IHttpModule called UrlRoutingModule, it doesn’t get invoked unless ASP.NET itself gets invoked, which only happens when aspnet_isapi.dll gets invoked, which only happens when there’s a .aspx in the URL. So, no .aspx, no UrlRoutingModule, hence the 404.

I’d say you’ve got four ways around this:

Option 1: Use a wildcard mapping for aspnet_isapi.dll

This tells IIS 6 to process all requests using ASP.NET, so routing is always invoked, and there’s no problem. It’s dead easy to set up: open IIS manager, right-click your app, go to Properties, then Home Directory tab, then click Configuration. Under Wildcard application maps, click Insert (not Add, which is confusingly just above),  then enter C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\aspnet_isapi.dll for “Executable”, and uncheck Verify that file exists.

Done! Routing now just behaves as it always did in VS2008′s built-in server.

Unfortunately, this also tells IIS to use ASP.NET to serve all requests, including for static files. It will work, because ASP.NET has a built-in DefaultHttpHandler that does it, but depending on what you do during the request, it might use StaticFileHandler to serve the request. StaticFileHandler is much less efficient than IIS natively. You see, it always reads the files from disk for every request, not caching them in memory. It doesn’t send Cache-Control headers that you might have configured in IIS, so browsers won’t cache it properly. It doesn’t do HTTP compression. However, if you can avoid interfering with the request, DefaultHttpHandler will pass control back to IIS for native processing, which is much better.

For small intranet applications, wildcard mappings are probably the best choice. Yes, it impacts performance slightly, but that might not be a problem for you. Perhaps you have better things to worry about.

For larger public internet applications, you may need a solution that delivers better performance.

Update: It turns out that you can disable wildcard maps on selected subfolders, which may give you the best of both worlds.

Option 2: Put .aspx in all your route entries’ URL patterns

If you don’t mind having .aspx in your URLs, just go through your routing config, adding .aspx before a forward-slash in each pattern. For example, use {controller}.aspx/{action}/{id} or myapp.aspx/{controller}/{action}/{id}. Don’t put .aspx inside the curly-bracket parameter names, or into the ‘default’ values, because it isn’t really part of the controller name – it’s just in the URL to satisfy IIS.

Now your application will be invoked just like a traditional ASP.NET app. IIS still handles static files. This is probably the easiest solution in shared hosting scenarios. Unfortunately, you’ve spoiled your otherwise clean URL schema.

Options 3: Use a custom filename extension in all your URL patterns

This is the same as the above, except substituting something like .mvc instead of .aspx. It doesn’t really create any advantage, other than showing off that you’re using ASP.NET MVC.

Just update your route entries as described above, except putting .mvc instead of .aspx. Next, register a new ISAPI mapping: Open IIS manager, right-click your app, go to Properties, then Home Directory tab, then click Configuration. On the Mappings tab, click Add, then enter C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\aspnet_isapi.dll for “Executable”, .mvc (or whatever extension you’re using) for “Extension”, and uncheck Verify that file exists. Leave Script engine checked (unless your app has Execute permission) and leave All verbs selected unless you specifically want to filter HTTP methods.

That’s it – you’re now using a custom extension. Unfortunately, it’s still a bit of an eyesore on your otherwise clean URL schema.

Option 4: Use URL rewriting

This is a trick to make IIS think there’s a filename extension in the URL, even though there isn’t. It’s the hardest solution to implement, but the only one that gives totally clean URLs without any significant drain on performance.

Ben Scheirman came up with a great post on this subject, but I’m adapting the technique slightly so as to avoid needing to change my routing configuration in any way. Here’s how it works for me:

1. As an extensionless request arrives, we have a 3rd-party ISAPI filter that rewrites the request to add a known extension: .aspx.

2. IIS sees the extension, and maps it to aspnet_isapi.dll, and hence into ASP.NET

3. Before routing sees the request, we have an Application_BeginRequest() handler that rewrites the URL back to its original, extensionless form

4. Routing sees the extensionless URL and behaves normally.

Since the URL gets un-rewritten in step 3, you don’t have to do anything funny to make outbound URL generation work.

How to do it

First, download and install Helicon’s ISAPI_Rewrite. You can use the freeware edition, version 2, though beware this will affect all the sites on your server. If you need to localize the rewriting to a particular app or virtual directory, you’ll need one of the paid-for editions.

Now edit ISAPI_Rewrite’s configuration (Start -> All programs -> Helicon -> ISAPI_Rewrite -> httpd.ini), and add:

# If you're hosting in a virtual directory, enable these lines,
# entering the path of your virtual directory.
#UriMatchPrefix /myvirtdir
#UriFormatPrefix /myvirtdir

# Add extensions to this rule to avoid them being processed by ASP.NET
RewriteRule (.*)\.(css|gif|png|jpeg|jpg|js|zip) $1.$2 [I,L]

# Normalizes the homepage URL to /
RewriteRule /home(\?.*)? /$1 [I,RP,L]
RewriteRule / /home [I]

# Prefixes URLs with "rewritten.aspx/", so that ASP.NET handles them
RewriteRule /(.*) /rewritten.aspx/$1 [I]

This excludes known, static files (CSS, GIF etc.), but for the rest, it prefixes the URL with /rewritten.aspx, making ASP.NET kick in. As a bonus, it normalizes any requests for /home to simply / via a 301 redirection, helping out with your SEO. Save this file, and restart IIS (run iisreset.exe).

That’s implemented step 1. Now, to implement step 3, add the following handler to your Global.asax.cs file:

protected void Application_BeginRequest(Object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    HttpApplication app = sender as HttpApplication;
    if (app != null)
        if (app.Request.AppRelativeCurrentExecutionFilePath == "~/rewritten.aspx")
            app.Context.RewritePath(
                app.Request.Url.PathAndQuery.Replace("/rewritten.aspx", "")
            );
}

This detects rewritten URLs, and un-rewrites them. That does it! (Or at least it works on my machine – please share your experiences.)

Now you’ve got clean, extensionless URLs on IIS 6 (and probably on IIS5, though I haven’t tried), without using a wildcard map, and without interfering with IIS’s efficient handling of static files.

Bonus option 5: Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 and IIS 7

Of course, it’s much easier with IIS 7, because it natively supports .NET IHttpModules, so by default you’ll have UrlRoutingModule plugged right into the server, and you don’t have to do anything weird to make it work perfectly.

196 Responses to Deploying ASP.NET MVC to IIS 6

  1. That’s a great idea. In my application I had to duplicate my routes and have extension-less and .mvc versions of each route.

    I was tinkering with a method of automatically generating both, but I like this better.

  2. Option 6: remove the wildcard mapping from your static directories: /images, /script /css, etc. The IIS Admin UI is a bit clunky as you have to mark it as an application before it lets you get to the mapping dialog, but you can remove the application afterwards and it works as expected.

  3. Steve

    @Ben – Yep, and thanks for your original post. ISAPI_Rewrite is a great piece of kit that we relied on pretty heavily in a recent project. You can do so much with it.

    @Duncan – Excellent! That’s a great tip – I had no idea IIS 6 supported that. I’ve written it up as a new post to make sure more people spot it.

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  5. Option 1 is the best. You can write your own StaticFileHandler which gives you all you need (or find some on web -> google :) ) but I test StaticFileHandler from asp.net 2.0 and I think it work’s good, send proper headers (If-Modified_Since, ETag). :)

    Conclusion
    For small/medium sites will be good. For bigger sites – write your own with compression, cache, etc :)

  6. Klaus

    After setting the wildcard mapping from Option 1, i am no longer able to upload files with Visual Web Developer 2008 Express. I will get the message “Directory ~/ does not exist”.

  7. Excellent article Steve – thanks.

    Klaus,

    I suspect you’re suffering from a similar issue to me – I can’t publish using VS 2008 either although I’m using option4. What appears to be happening is that ALL requests, even those for FrontPage extensions, are being sent through to ASP.Net.

    I don’t believe there’s a solution for option 1 using wildcard mapping. However, if you were using option 4, my suggestion, although I haven’t had a chance to come up with a working solution yet, would be to check the User-Agent for ‘FrontPage’ and not rewrite the URL if a match is found.

    Does anyone have a working solution to this?

  8. Steve

    @Klaus, @Jonny: I can’t really test this at the moment, but is it possible to set up a second web site, on a different port, that serves files from the same directory? Then you could have wildcard mapping on the real site, but not on the second site, and upload via Front Page to the second site. Don’t know if it will work – just an idea.

  9. It’s good post. Thank you.
    I love method 8. but…. my boss don’t.
    It’s too sadness..

  10. This was really helpful, thank you a lot!

    Method 2 (adding the .aspx extension to the routes) seems to be the only working option if you’re on shared hosting and have *no* access to the IIS6 administration panel (like in my case…). Anyway, you can always try to “rewrite-away” the extensions and get beautiful URLs in the end.
    Thanks again! :)

  11. Faraz

    Thanks for the great article. I am trying to go by option number 4 and I still get a 404. I followed all your steps. Option number one works fine, but I was having some performance issues on my site. Can you explain further on what you mean by this:

    # If you’re hosting in a virtual directory, enable these lines,
    # entering the path of your virtual directory.
    #UriMatchPrefix /myvirtdir
    #UriFormatPrefix /myvirtdir

  12. Thanks Steve – great article and it helped solve a problem!

  13. I found a solution for the 404 problem in option 4:

    RewriteRule ^(.*) /rewritten.aspx/$1 [I]

    Instead of

    RewriteRule /(.*) /rewritten.aspx/$1 [I]

    It seems to work fine.

  14. Steve

    @Fabrizio – thanks for letting us know. I haven’t seen any 404 problem myself but perhaps your solution will be helpful to others.

  15. dez

    I tried option 2 and a test.asp file loads fine but cannot get any of my other MVC files to load, just 404 error. So, then I tried option 1 and now I cannot even get the test.asp file to load. I’m running ASP.NET MVC Beta, just trying to get the default page and Home/About to load. I’m deploying files using ftp, deleting all targets before publishing from VS 2008 SP1. Here is my Global.asax file using option 1: (… snip … too long)
    Here is what I used in my Global.asax file for Option 2: (… snip … too long)
    I’m have my site set up as a virtual directory under the Default web site. Should The Documents-Ednable Default content page be set for ASP.NET MVC app? If so what should the single file entry be if you want it to load the default page (Default, Default.aspx, /Home/Index)?

  16. Steve

    Hi Dez – your problem must be something different because your routing config looks fine. It may be some sort of permissions issue. For example, if you haven’t enabled ASP.NET 2.0 in IIS 6, then you will get 404 errors as you describe.

  17. Pingback: Getting ASP.Net MVC running on IIS6

  18. Harendra chauhan

    I have ASP .net MVC website created on my machine ,it is runnig fine on my machine ,all links are working but when I hosted is on IIS 5.1 that time home page is assible from other pc on network but all its Links(url routing) is not working,Images are not getting loaded , css is not working.. Plz provide the help if a any… How can make my web app workable ?

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  21. James

    Hi, great stuff. I tried option 4, but using ISAPI Rewrite version 3. To get it working I had to remove the 2 lines which normalized the home page.

  22. Hello,

    MS’ website gives full indications to implement option 2 (or 3). This page might have been added/updated after your blog post. Check it out : http://www.asp.net/learn/mvc/tutorial-08-cs.aspx

  23. Vasanth

    Hi,
    I have tried the wildcard mapping, but its not working in IIS 6.0. do i need to do anything with that?

    Please, Its required my uregently

  24. Steve

    Vasanth, assuming you’ve followed the instructions in this blog post, the wildcard map should work. In what way isn’t it working?

  25. Vasanth

    Hi Steve,

    thanks for the prompt reply. I have added the wildcard extesion wiht isapi dll. but my URL still taking .mvc extension. I dont know the reason. I am using IIS 6.0 built in with windows server 2003. what mare possible reasons for not working ? Please help me.
    Thanks

    Vasanth

  26. Steve

    @Vasanth, if your routing configuration specifies .mvc extensions, then it won’t work if you omit the extensions, regardless of the wildcard map. Be sure to remove the extensions from your routing config.

  27. E Rolnicki

    Steve:

    Option 4 is great, but you should modify the rewrite. If you rewrite any incoming request of X to /rewritten.aspx/X then you will not be able to control httpTimeouts for specific paths (via tag in web.config)

    Instead, rewrite the requests of X to X/rewritten.aspx

    RewriteRule (.*\??)([^.?]+[^.?/]) $1$2/rewritten.aspx [IQSA]

  28. as1

    You can find an inplementation of ASP.NET MVC for ASP.NET 2.0 on this site:
    http://alejandrovidalquiroga.blogspot.com/

  29. An IMPORTANT consideration for those having 404 errors, if you’re using 64-BIT WINDOWS.

    If you can access your static resources (for example, http://www.site.com/products.aspx) before you add the isapi handler to handle wildcard requests, but get 404 errors after adding the 404, CHECK TO ENSURE YOU’RE using the right ISAPI module!!!

    On my machine, the 64-bit version is at:
    C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\aspnet_isapi.dll

    NOT: C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\aspnet_isapi.dll

    IT WILL NOT WORK WITHOUT IT!

  30. Great post, works a treat for me.

    Only issue I had was that I had to refresh all the ASP.NET 1.1 references to ASP.NET 2.0, as you can not have both of these running in the same application pool

  31. Whatever

    So I got a question…Why the hell do we have to go through so many loops to make this POS work? I mean..why doesn’t Microsoft include this in the MVC 1.0 bits? Or as a SP? Or something?Why do we have to hand-tweak IIS or god forbid, our routes, just to make this thing work?

    It shouldn’t be this hard.

  32. Steve

    @Whatever – it’s far, far easier if you’re deploying to IIS 7 or newer. It just works without any special config for routing.

    Also, this post may give the impression that IIS 6 is harder to configure for MVC than it really is – in fact, if you just enable the wildcard mapping, you’re done. I explained the harder options just in case you really want to squeeze out an extra percent or so of performance.

  33. “open IIS manager, right-click your app, go to Properties, then Home Directory tab,”

    Your “Home Directory” tab … may read “Virtual Directory”.

    This article is useful:
    “Creating an ASP.NET Application Root Directory with IIS (IIS 6.0)”
    :: “All ASP.NET applications use IIS virtual directories as their application root directories.”
    http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/WindowsServer2003/Library/IIS/6764fa59-36bc-4215-b35d-fb5e3fa1ffcc.mspx?mfr=true

  34. Scott

    I tried to do the simple wildcard mapping approach, but after that only seems to work for loading the home page. Everything else gives be 404 errors, and I also notice the urls are wiping out my vdir path.

  35. Willo

    It pays to read these responses! Thanks Gary!

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  38. Scott,

    Under the wildcard application map, under Add/Edit Application Extension Mapping make sure the the check box “Verify that file exists” is unchecked.

  39. Steve, I downloaded the asapi filter, but I don’t see a httpd.ini, I see a httpd.conf file?

    Did I download the wrong .msi?

  40. Thanks, it is very useful!

  41. Dmitry

    I’ve just finished the detailed article on how to enable extensionless
    URLs in MVC under IIS 6 using 404 error approach with postbacks working!
    Hope it will be helpful for those who want nice URLs in MVC application under IIS 6.

    http://elitebrains.com/blogs/view/asp-net/4/iis-6-and-asp-net-mvc-extensionless-urls-that-work-even-in-postbacks

  42. Pingback: Url Helper Extension Method for ASP MVC in form tags when using IIS 6 | Taswar Bhatti Blog

  43. mark hudson

    If you are using a 64 bit OS you need to reference the dlls under c:\windows\microsoft.net\framework64 folder

    eg

    c:\windows\microsoft.net\framework64\v4.0.21006\aspnet_isapi.dll

  44. Brandon

    There is a flaw in your posted solution 2. You forget to mention adding the root handling route.

    routes.MapRoute( _
    “Root”, _
    “”, _
    New With {.controller = “Home”, .action = “Index”, .id = “”} _
    )

  45. Raj

    I have a still problem with routs
    somehow
    I had done all mention solution
    any another solution

  46. Steve

    Raj, can you describe your problem in more detail? All of the solutions in this blog post should work.

  47. Per

    I also have problems with IIS 6 routing, all static resources like pictures etc doesn’t show.

    Says “Forbidden, not allowed to acces executables” err 403, when I type the url of the picture.

  48. Per

    Found a solution to my problem from here:
    http://forums.asp.net/t/1192188.aspx
    by rjcox.

    ASP.NET is not allowed by default on IIS. So it must be set to “Allowed” in “Web Service Extensions” (a folder under IIS Manager, the one under “Web Sites”).

    Also I messed with my security settings, so I deleted the site, and the folder on my drive, and started over from the beginning with a fresh folder.

  49. Kaushik

    I have a problem…my mvc application is working fine in IIS 5.1. The application have one JobIndex page and another job description page. When the user clicks on a link in job index page the job description is displayed.

    When I deployed it to IIS 6.0 the job index page is displaying job listing but the job description page is throwing error 404. I have used Use a wildcard mapping (.*) for aspnet_isapi.dll on IIS 6.0.

    Job Index Page URL:
    http://localhost/career_seekers/jobs/

    Job Description Page URL:
    http://localhost/career_seekers/jobs/Administrative/Scarborough

    Can you help…

  50. Chris

    I have following the instruction for Option 4 and I am now getting a 404 the resource cannot be found error for /rewritten.aspx/home.

    Any one know why this is the case. Seems as if the Application_BeginRequest method is not rewriteing the path.

  51. seishin

    Hi!
    I’ve got a question about option 1 – static files to be precise. I’ve got an mvc app set up on IIS6 – I used your option 1 but then problems begun. i’ve got a virtual directory mapping unc path to company’s file server, and sometimes, when site gets some traffic, an error occurs:
    “An error occured loading configuration file: Failed to start monitoring changes to ‘\\server\dir\subdir’ because the network BIOS command limit has been reached. [...]”

    I’ve looked around and found a tip that using aspnet_isapi.dll on IIS6 and wildcard mapping causes asp.net to create file change notifiers on all subdirectories, but I can’t find any documentation for that.

    do you know anything about this kind of behaviour?
    thanks for any help!

  52. Steve

    Seishin – I had that problem too once. Some people claimed that upgrading to Windows Server 2008 would fix it, but when I tried, it didn’t. I ended up having to stop reading the files across UNC and just host them locally.

  53. Mark

    With .NET 4, it is no longer required to add an isapi wildcard mapping to get extension-less urls working on IIS6.

    For further info, read this post: http://blogs.msdn.com/tmarq/archive/2010/04/01/asp-net-4-0-enables-routing-of-extensionless-urls-without-impacting-static-requests.aspx

    I had been testing an MVC2 app on Windows 2003 server when I suddenly realised I hadn’t set up the wildcard mapping, yet the extension-less url routing was working perfectly. After some testing, I found out that changing the .net framework back to v2 for the web application meant the routing failed.

    After much searching to see if .NET 4 has a new feature, I came across the above link. This was feature I had not heard a whisper of, but which needs to be highlighted.

    Perhaps you could update your blog article?

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  59. Hi,

    I have my website published on a shared server with .net 3.5 and IIS 7 , I am using system.web.routing and added UrlRoutingModule, UrlRoutingHandler in web.config, and I defined a few routes in global.asax application_start and placed a httphandler in app_code, it was working on my system with development sever fine, but when I upload it to the shared server its not working showing 404 only.
    Can you please suggest me any workaround for IIS7 with .net 3.5 on a shared server.
    Thanks and regards
    Ganesh NR
    +919849255958

  60. Steve

    Ganesh, if it was your own server it could be a permissions issue, and you could try to resolve it by first giving Read permission to “Everybody” on that directory (and then change it back later if you’ve determined that it is a permissions issue). As it’s a shared server, however, I can’t really guess what’s happening with your configuration. You may need to contact your hosting provider.

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  62. Erdogan

    Thank you Steve,
    i used your option 2 and its worked for me.
    Thank you again

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