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Knockout Projections – a plugin for efficient observable array transformations

knockout-projections is a new Knockout.js plugin that adds efficient “map” and “filter” features to observable arrays. This means you can:

  • Write to get a new, read-only array-valued observable containing the mapped version of each input item.
  • Write myObservableArray.filter(someFilterFunction) to get a new, read-only array-valued observable containing a subset of the input items.

When the underlying myObservableArray changes, or whenever any observable accessed during the mapping/filtering changes, the output array will be recomputed efficiently, meaning that the map/filter callbacks will only be invoked for the affected items.

The point of all this: it can scale up to maintain live transforms of large arrays, with only a fixed cost (not O(N)) to propagate typical changes through the graph of dependencies.

Trivial mapping example

To illustrate the mechanics in an obvious way, consider this underlying array:

var numbers = ko.observableArray([1, 2, 3]);

Now if you’ve referenced knockout-projections, you can write:

var squares = { return x*x; });

Initially, squares will contain [1, 4, 9]. It’s observable, so you can use squares.subscribe to get notifications when it mutates, or you can bind it to a DOM element (e.g., foreach: squares) in KO’s usual way.

Now if you transform the underlying array:


… then squares updates (to [1, 4, 9, 64]) and only calls your mapping function for the new item, 8.

Any transformation is permitted, e.g.:


This has the effect of reversing squares (to [64, 9, 4, 1]), again without remapping anything.

If you remove item(s):

numbers.splice(1, 1);

… then squares is updated (here, to [64, 1]) without remapping anything.

In summary, is an efficient, observable equivalent to Also, it can be arbitrarily chained (and combined in chains with filter) to produce graphs of transformations.

Trivial filtering example

The filter feature works exactly as you’d expect, given the above. For example,

var evenSquares = squares.filter(function(x) { return x % 2 === 0; });

Initially, evenSquares will contain just [64]. When you mutate the underlying array,

numbers.push(4); // evenSquares now contains [64, 16]
numbers.push(5); // evenSquares doesn't change
numbers.push(6); // evenSquares now contains [64, 16, 36]

Again, it responds to arbitrary transformations:

numbers.sort();  // evenSquares now contains [16, 36, 64]

A more realistic use case

Typically you won’t just be playing around will small collections of numbers. Most Knockout apps work with collections of model objects – sometimes very large collections.

Here’s a simple model object:

function Product(data) { =; = ko.observable(;
    this.price = ko.observable(data.price);
    this.isSelected = ko.observable(false);

Many KO applications involve fetching a large collection of model objects and exposing that from a viewmodel:

function PageViewModel() {
    // Some data, perhaps loaded via an Ajax call
    this.products = ko.observableArray([
        new Product({ id: 1, name: 'Klein Burger', price: 3.99 }),
        new Product({ id: 2, name: 'Mobius Fries', price: 1.75 }),
        new Product({ id: 3, name: 'Uncountable Chicken Chunks', price: 3.59 }),
        new Product({ id: 4, name: 'Mandelbrot Salad', price: 2.40 }),
        ... etc ...
ko.applyBindings(new PageViewModel());

Now this might be bound to the UI:

<ul data-bind="foreach: products">
        <input type="checkbox" data-bind="checked: isSelected" />
        <strong data-bind="text: name"></strong>
        (Price: £<span data-bind="text: price().toFixed(2)"></span>)

This is all fine, and Knockout is already good at efficiently (i.e., incrementally) updating the UI when the products array changes. But what if you want to track which subset of products is “selected”?

The traditional approach would be something like:

this.selectedProducts = ko.computed(function() {
    return this.products().filter(function(product) {
        return product.isSelected();
}, this);

This works (using Array.prototype.filter, not the Knockout-projections filter function). However, it’s inefficient. Every time the products array changes, and every time any of their isSelected properties changes, it re-evaluates the isSelected property of every product. It has to do so, because it has no built-in understanding of what you’re doing, so it can’t be clever and incremetally update the earlier selectedProducts array.

However, if you use Knockout-projections filter function, e.g.:

this.selectedProducts = this.products.filter(function(product) {
    return product.isSelected();

… it’s both syntactically cleaner, and way faster for large arrays: it now updates the selectedProducts array incrementally whenever either products changes or any of the isSelected values changes.

Similarly you might want to output the names of the selected items. So, you could chain on a new selectedNames property, and perhaps furthermore chain on selectionSummary:

this.selectedNames = {
this.selectionSummary = ko.computed(function() {
    return this.selectedNames().join(', ')  || 'Nothing';
}, this);

Now when products changes, or when an isSelected or name property changes, the effect will propagate out incrementally through the whole dependency graph with the minimum of callback-invoking, meaning a snappy user experience even with large data sets and low-end mobile devices.

Licence and origin

knockout-projections is open source under the Apache 2.0 license. It was built as a tiny component in a very large project I’m working on at Microsoft, and thanks to my boss (and his boss, and probably multiple people up the chain) we’ve decided to open-source it. Hopefully my team will be producing plentiful nuggets of OSS goodness for you as we go about our work :)

Just a clarification for the avoidance of any confusion, Knockout.js itself remains MIT licensed and is run by the KO community and the KO core team members (which includes me personally).

135 Responses to Knockout Projections – a plugin for efficient observable array transformations

  1. Dhana

    It looks more like a wrapper on ko.utils, with nice short syntax… good one…

  2. Shuhel Ahmed

    This is awesome Steve. Thanks a lot to you, to your boss (and his boss, and all probable multiple people up the chain)! I love this Microsoft.

  3. Great stuff! I’m looking forward to seeing the performance gains when switching over to using the .filter function, as I’ve experienced some stuttering on large arrays already with the traditional approach. This looks perfect for that.

    Have you considered making this a part of the Knockout core, or would that cause licensing issues? This seems to cover very common use cases when working with observable arrays. I’ll definitely be using it a lot, so thank you for this!

  4. Thanks for this Steve – I don’t know if you’re using TypeScript at all but I’ve put together a typings file for knockout-projections so it can be consumed that way too:

  5. Lance

    This is massive Steve. Total kudos for improving an already outstanding library !

    This is going to be a great help in operations that our code is performing all the time and to echo Martin’s words it would be great to see it in core one day (licensing permitting).

    Thanks again and keep up the good work !

  6. job

    Thanks e – I don’t know if you using TypeScript at all so it can be consumed that way too

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  14. Steve

    Seems rather common in knockout world to make this AMD compatible, any reason you aren’t on this one ?

  15. Rob

    Any tips on how to filter on a grandchild property?

    E.g. array of items, each with an array of data, each having values and isSelected property.

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